1.2.4. SELECT

1.2.4.1. Building The Statement

1.2.4.1.1. Columns

To add columns to the Select, use the columns() method and pass each column as a variadic argument.

// SELECT id, name AS namecol, COUNT(foo) AS foo_count
$select
    ->columns('id')
    ->columns('name AS namecol', 'COUNT(foo) AS foo_count');

1.2.4.1.2. FROM

To add a FROM clause, use the from() method:

// FROM foo, bar AS b
$select
    ->from('foo')
    ->from('bar AS b');

1.2.4.1.3. JOIN

(All JOIN methods support inline value binding via optional trailing arguments.)

To add a JOIN clause, use the join() method:

// LEFT JOIN doom AS d ON foo.id = d.foo_id
$select->join(
    'LEFT',
    'doom AS d',
    'foo.id = d.foo_id'
);

You can concatenate onto the end of the most-recent JOIN using the catJoin() method:

// LEFT JOIN doom AS d ON foo.id = d.foo_if AND d.bar = :_1_1_ AND d.baz = :_1_2_
$select
    ->join(
        'LEFT',
        'doom AS d',
        'foo.id = d.foo_id AND d.bar = ',
        $bar_value
    )->catJoin(' AND d.baz = ', $baz_value);

1.2.4.1.4. WHERE

(All WHERE methods support implicit and sprintf() inline value binding.)

To add WHERE conditions, use the where() method. Additional calls to where() will implicitly AND the subsequent condition.

// WHERE bar > :_1_1_ AND zim >= :_1_2_ AND baz :_1_3_
$select
    ->where('bar > ', $bar_value)
    ->where('zim >= ', $zim_value)
    ->andWhere('baz < ', $baz_value);

Use orWhere() to OR the subsequent condition.

// WHERE bar > :_1_1_ OR zim >= :_1_2_
$select
    ->where('bar > ', $bar_value)
    ->orWhere('zim >= ', $zim_value)

You can concatenate onto the end of the most-recent WHERE condition using the catWhere() method:

// WHERE bar > :_1_1_ OR (foo = 88 AND bar < :_1_2_)
$select
    ->where('bar > ', $bar_value)
    ->orWhere('(')
    ->catWhere('foo = 88')
    ->catWhere(' AND bar < ', $bar_value)
    ->catWhere(')');

Each of the WHERE-related methods has an sprintf variation as well:

// WHERE bar BETWEEN :_1_1_ AND :_1_2_
// AND baz BETWEEN :_1_3_ AND :_1_4_
// OR dib BETWEEN :_1_5_ AND :_1_6_
// ...
$select
    ->whereSprintf('bar BETWEEN %s AND %s', $bar_low, $bar_high)
    ->andWhereSprintf('baz BETWEEN %s AND %s', $baz_low, $baz_high)
    ->orWhereSprintf('dib BETWEEN %s AND %s', $dib_low, $dib_high)
    ->catWhereSprintf(...);

1.2.4.1.4.1. Convenience Equality

There is an additional whereEquals() convenience method that adds a series of ANDed equality conditions for you based on an array of key-value pairs.

Given an array value, the condition will be IN (). Given a null value, the condition will be IS NULL. For all other values, the condition will be =. If you pass a value without a key, that value will be used as a raw unescaped condition.

For example:

// WHERE foo IN (:_1_1_, :_1_2_, :_1_3_) AND bar IS NULL AND baz = :_1_4_ AND zim = NOW()
$select->whereEquals([
    'foo' => ['a', 'b', 'c'],
    'bar' => null,
    'baz' => 'dib',
    'zim = NOW()'
]);

1.2.4.1.5. GROUP BY

To add GROUP BY expressions, use the groupBy() method and pass each expression as a variadic argument.

// GROUP BY foo, bar, baz
$select
    ->groupBy('foo')
    ->groupBy('bar', 'baz');

1.2.4.1.6. HAVING

(All HAVING methods support implicit and sprintf() inline value binding.)

The HAVING methods work just like their equivalent WHERE methods:

  • having() and andHaving() AND a HAVING condition
  • orHaving() ORs a HAVING condition
  • catHaving() concatenates onto the end of the most-recent HAVING condition
  • havingSprintf() and andHavingSprintf() AND a HAVING condition with sprintf()
  • orHavingSprintf() ORs a HAVING condition with sprintf()
  • catHavingSprintf() concatenates onto the end of the most-recent HAVING condition with sprintf()

1.2.4.1.7. ORDER BY

To add ORDER BY expressions, use the orderBy() method and pass each expression as a variadic argument.

// ORDER BY foo, bar, baz
$select
    ->orderBy('foo')
    ->orderBy('bar', 'baz');

By default, results are ordered in ascending order (ASC). To sort in a different order, add the revelant keyword. For example, to sort in descending order:

// ORDER BY foo DESC
$select
    ->orderBy('foo DESC')

1.2.4.1.8. LIMIT, OFFSET, and Paging

To set a LIMIT and OFFSET, use the limit() and offset() methods.

// LIMIT 10 OFFSET 40
$select
    ->limit(10)
    ->offset(40);

Alternatively, you can limit by "pages" using the page() and perPage() methods:

// LIMIT 10 OFFSET 40
$select
    ->page(5)
    ->perPage(10);

1.2.4.1.9. DISTINCT, FOR UPDATE, and Other Flags

You can set DISTINCT and FOR UPDATE flags on the Select like so:

$select
    ->distinct()
    ->forUpdate();

Each of those methods take an optional boolean parameter to enable (true) or disable (false) the flag.

You can set flags recognized by your database server using the setFlag() method. For example, you can set a MySQL HIGH_PRIORITY flag like so:

// SELECT HIGH_PRIORITY * FROM foo
$select
    ->columns('*')
    ->from('foo')
    ->setFlag('HIGH_PRIORITY');

1.2.4.1.10. UNION

To UNION or UNION ALL the current Select with a followup statement, call one the union*() methods:

// SELECT id, name FROM foo
// UNION
// SELECT id, name FROM bar
$select
    ->columns('id', 'name')
    ->from('foo')
    ->union()
    ->columns('id', 'name')
    ->from('bar');

// SELECT id, name FROM foo
// UNION ALL
// SELECT id, name FROM bar
$select
    ->columns('id', 'name')
    ->from('foo')
    ->unionAll()
    ->columns('id', 'name')
    ->from('bar');

1.2.4.2. Resetting SELECT Elements

The Select class comes with the following methods to "reset" various clauses a blank state. This can be useful when reusing the same statement in different variations (e.g., to re-issue a statement to get a COUNT(*) without a LIMIT, to find the total number of rows to be paginated over).

  • reset() removes all clauses from the statement.
  • resetColumns() removes all the columns to be selected.
  • resetFrom() removes the FROM clause, including all JOIN sub-clauses.
  • resetWhere() removes all WHERE conditions.
  • resetGroupBy() removes all GROUP BY expressions.
  • resetHaving() removes all HAVING conditions.
  • resetOrderBy() removes all ORDER BY expressions.
  • resetLimit() removes all LIMIT, OFFSET, and paging values.
  • resetFlags() removes all flags.
  • resetWith() removes the WITH clause.

Resetting only works on the current SELECT being built; it has no effect on statements that are already part of UNION.

1.2.4.3. Subselect Objects

If you want create a subselect, call the subSelect() method:

$subSelect = $select->subSelect();

When you are done building the subselect, give it an alias using the as() method; the object itself can be used in the desired condition or expression.

The following is a contrived example:

// SELECT * FROM (
//     SELECT id, name
//     FROM foo
//     WHERE id > :_1_1_
// ) AS sub_alias
// WHERE LENGTH(sub_alias.name) > :_1_2_
$select
    ->columns('*')
    ->from(
        $select->subSelect()
            ->columns('id', 'name')
            ->from('foo')
            ->where('id > ', $id)
            ->as('sub_alias')
        )
    )
    ->where('LENGTH(sub_alias.name) > ', $length);

Other examples include:

// joining on a subselect
$select->join(
    'LEFT',
    $select->subSelect()->...->as('sub_alias'),
    'foo.id = sub_alias.id',
);

// binding a subselect inline
$select->where(
    'foo IN ',
    $select->subSelect()->...
);